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Perú Travel and Tourist Guide
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Peru (Quechua and Aymara: Piruw), or the Republic of Peru, is a decentralized unitary republic located in the intertropical and western part of South America.
It bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and the countries of Perú and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, southeast Bolivia and Chile to the south.
Regions and departments are the country's largest administrative divisions according to the constitution in force.
The departmental division comes from independence to follow up the viceregal municipalities. The degree of autonomy of these has been fluctuating in history.
In 2002, they were created twenty regional governments and autonomous entities intended to manage twenty departments and the province of Callao and lead a process of forming regions to date in its infancy; while it gave the province of Lima independence of the regional government of his department.
The Andes divide the country into three major physiographic regions: Costa, Sierra and Selva
The Peruvian coast is a barren, flat strip that runs parallel to the coast, its width reaches up to 180 km in the Sechura desert.
The Sierra consists of a system of mountain ranges. These mountains run aligned in parallel chains, three in the north, three in the center and two in the south. Northern Andes merge with the center in the knot of Pasco, while the center converge with those of the south in the Vilcanota knot at the height of Cuzco.
La Selva, located to the east, is a vast plain region covered by vegetation. It constitutes almost 60% of the land area. Selva Selva Alta and Baja, two disitintas regions are appreciated. The high forest is located around the eastern flank of the Andes. Its height varies between 3500 and 800 meters. It ranges from the northern border to the southern tip of the country. The topography of this area is varied, since the departure of the Andes and steep entry into the flat and natural forest region. Lower Forest or the Amazon rainforest is between 800 and 80 meters, in this area are the largest and navigable such as Amazon, which passes through the city of Iquitos rivers. The landform is flat and highlights the presence of the mountain range of Contamana, located on the left bank of the river Yavarí. Its highest point reaches 780 meters.
The territory of Peru consists of diverse landscapes: valleys, plateaus and high peaks of the Andes spread west to the desert coast and east to the Amazon. It is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world and major mineral resources. Peruvian culture is diverse as a result of intense miscegenation originated in the colony. Added to this is the later influence of nineteenth-century migration from China, Japan and Europe.
Tourism is the third largest in Peru, behind fishing and mining industry. Tourism is directed mainly towards the archaeological monuments, as it has over one hundred thousand archaeological sites.
Tourism in Peru has an impact of 7% of GDP, Top countries of origin of tourists are Chile, United States, Perú, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Spain, Bolivia, France, Venezuela, Germany, UK, Italy , Japan and Mexico. Tourism employs 11% of the economically active population, mostly in catering and transport.
The most visited tourist places in Peru are Lima City and its historic center, Cuzco characterized by its Inca and colonial architecture but the main attractions are the Sacred Valley and Machu Picchu, Arequipa in the middle historical, also in the Colca Valley and finally Puno on lake Titicaca.
The main tourist circuit of the country is the southern circuit, which includes cities such as; Ica, Nazca, Paracas, Arequipa, Chivay, Puno, Cuzco, Ayacucho and Puerto Maldonado, architectural, cultural and natural attractions. The second most important route is the Callejon de Huaylas, in the Ancash department, home of adventure tourism and major landmark of the Andean cuisine.
Peru has many other tourist routes. Among these are the Mantaro river valley, with the city of Huancayo as one of its axes, and the valley of Tarma called by Antonio Raimondi La Perla de los Andes as another shaft which in turn is the entrance to the Central Forest. South Central Coast (Ica region and province of Cañete) and the northern city of Trujillo where Chan Chan is the largest adobe citadel of Latin America, the traditional Huanchaco and Huaca del Sol belonging to culture Chimu can also visit Chiclayo and Lambayeque from where the Royal Tombs of Sipan. These are points of departure for other regions of the north in the northeastern tourist circuit.
Also the Amazon River and the city of Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon are suitable for tourism. There is much of the Peruvian biodiversity. Close to Iquitos is possible to visit two national reserves: the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve and National Reserve Allpahuayo Mishana.
Tourist Activities of Peru
In Peru you can perform various types of tourism such as adventure tourism, eco-tourism, cultural tourism, also exploring the Incan ruins of Machu Picchu, Choquequirao to pre-Inca Sillustani, overflight of the Nazca Lines or visit Colca Canyon, forests of Manu, navigation of Lake Titicaca or hiking the Inca Trail, or the Salkantay or Ausangate, Adventure on the coast, or the beaches of Mancora in the Peruvian coast, plus variety of rivers, or Andean highlands, and conducting experiential tourism and rural tourism.
As for ecotourism, there is a wide variety of flora and fauna in the Amazon, or the Ecological Reserve of Pacaya Samiria, the Callejon de Huaylas. Due to its proximity to the Peru you can visit the neighboring country of Bolivia who owns the Salar de Uyuni place from where you can see the curvature of the earth, also the Amazon jungle, or know the Tiahuanaco culture that includes all the Andean highlands to the Pacific coast.
The main tourist activities in Peru are:
- Adventure tourism
- Cultural tourism
- Gastronomic tourism
- Therapeutic tourism
- Experiential tourism
Other tourist routes that Peru offers are protected natural areas of special interest for ecotourism.
The latest is the Gastronomic Tourism Lima as Gastronomic Capital of America, as well as other options such as hotel infrastructure that make it home to regional and international conventions. Experiential tourism is also developed these past few years, mostly in the area of Lake Titicaca (islands of Taquile and Amantani) but also on alternative routes to visit Machu Picchu. In Peru there is also a good alternative in the department of Amazonas, because there there are great tourist attractions such is the case of Kuelap, or the third highest waterfall in the world, Gocta, a museum in Leymebamba averaging 200 mummies in very good condition and many other materials from the Chachapoyas culture, and a variety of dishes.
Main Destinations of Peru by Departments
Tourist Destinations of Lima
The Department of Lima is Peru's most populous, as the nation's capital, the City of Lima is there; is the transportation hub, cultural, economic, social, political and tourism in the nation. Because Peru is a highly centralized country, much of its trade organization and focus in this city. Lima was founded in 1535 by the conquistador Francisco Pizarro, the city he founded is now known as the Historic Center of Lima, which contains much of the colonial architecture of Peru and South America. During the colonial era, Lima was the center of Spanish rule in South America and administration of the continent passed through this city. Because of this, the colonial presence grew dramatically until independence.
After independence, cultures around the world began a cultural mix to form what is now Lima. An example of this union of cultures is the cuisine of the city. Lima's cuisine is a combination that represents all groups of people who are part of the city; Europe, Asia, and Andean cuisine combine to create what is now known as the Lima cuisine. The food industry is a very important part of the tourism economy of Lima, since many of the best restaurants in South America and the cooks are there.
Not only the obvious gastronomic Lima mixture, the mixture of cultures is also present. Nothing exemplifies this better than the many museums that are found throughout Lima, including the largest and best known is the National Museum, National Museum of Anthropology, Archaeology and History, Museo Rafael Larco Herrera, Archaeological National Museum Peruvian culture and the Museum of Italian Art.
The District of Miraflores is one which often appeals to tourists because of the multitude of restaurants, hotels, parks, events and attractions in the area. The District of Barranco, along with the District of Miraflores has a lively nightlife with many discos and pubs or clubs, a special kind of place that are very popular among tourists in Barranco.
The Reserve Park and Exhibition Park in the city and are a major green spaces in Lima. National Reserve of Lomas de Lanchay, located 105 kilometers north of Lima is home to a variety of wildlife and vegetation. Caral, located in the middle of the desert, is the oldest city in the Western Hemisphere, since it was built 5,000 years ago. Lunahuaná, south of Lima, it is a center for adventure tourism with rafting and other activities. Asia Beach, 100 kilometers south, is very popular among residents as a holiday destination.
Tourist Destinations in the Amazon Region
The Amazon region is a land of varied microclimates, each containing a wealth of biodiversity. In addition, the department was home to the pre-Columbian civilizations that have left impressive remains of once great culture. The capital city of Chachapoyas, adds to the diversity of ecology and culture as it is home to the quaint colonial architecture. The streets here are narrow. It contains a main square, characteristic of the Peruvian cities and maintains colonial mansions and balconies that add to the flavor of the mixed culture of the area. Arguably the most impressive destination of the department is the ancient fortress of Kuelap. Often referred to as the Northern Machu Picchu, Kuelap was built by the Chachapoyas culture, an ancient tribe of warriors who resisted the expansion of the Inca Empire. Waterfall Gocta discovered in 2005 is the third highest waterfall in the world.
Tourist Destinations in the Ancash Region
Ancash Region, is home to the Cordillera Blanca, the highest mountain range of Peru. The department is the epicenter of adventure tourism industry of Peru and attracts visitors who wish to participate in all kinds of activities. The department is a paradise for walkers and hikers as there is an extensive network of trails. The benefit of trekking in Ancash is that only a select few have been commercialized trails. The scenery along this trail is spectacular pre-Columbian and more than 12,000 lakes. Picturesque villages are scattered throughout the department and are very hospitable. The most popular excursions in the department are the walk Call the Cordillera Blanca and Cordillera Huayhuash.
The capital city of Huaraz, is a small industry of skiing and mountaineering reasonably developed. Mountain biking is the fastest growing sport in the region. Mountain bikes are available for the traveler at every level of experience. Rafting is an important activity in the department. The rapids range in difficulty from beginner to expert. The department has a high concentration of peaks. The climate is mild year-round and is easily accessible from Huaraz. Twelve of the twenty highest mountains of Peru are in the department, ranging in altitude from 5000 to 6768 meters. (15,000 to 22,200 feet).
Your saw is divided by two mountain ranges: the Cordillera de Huallanca and the Cordillera Blanca, thus causing two sides, the Pacific and the Atlantic, where cultures and picturesque towns developed.
The Eastern Sierra is home to Chavin, an ancient archaeological complex built over 3,200 years ago and listed as a World Heritage Site; the territory is bathed in several cities, those with more development in terms of tourism are: Chacas, Chavin, Huari and Pomabamba. The Perlilla snowed recently put on promotion, it is the resort for the world's tallest and closer to Perú skiing, has 25 hectares for the practice of winter sports. While the best place for watching condors is the Maranon Canyon with 1,900 meters deep.
Western Sierra ending in the foothills of the coast's main tourist hub to Callejon de Huaylas, with cities with the highest tourism development: Recuay, Carhuaz, Yungay and Caraz. These cities are a unique blend of European and Andean architecture.
The Costa Ancash whose main destinations to Tuquillo Spa, Playa Tortugas and La Huaca Sechin
The main attraction of the department is the Huascaran National Park, a World Heritage Site, being home to the highest mountain in Peru, the Huascaran.
Tourist Destinations of the Region of Apurimac
Apurimac Region is located in the Andes of southern Peru and is home to many towns and cities that are known for their natural beauty. The cities of Abancay and Andahuaylas are home to Spanish colonial architecture, each with a main square and narrow cobbled streets. The major tourist activities in this area include hiking and rafting. Since the regions are close to Cusco, many tourists make trips long walks Cusco Apurimac.
Tourist Destinations in the Region of Arequipa
Arequipa Region is one of the most geographically diverse, culturally and socially Peru. Main attractions of the department is the city of Arequipa, Colca Canyon, adventure tourism and wildlife viewing.
The city of Arequipa, the second largest in the nation, known as the "White City". The name comes from the color of the buildings in the city are made of ashlar coming from the volcanoes in the area. The city is overshadowed by the Misti volcano, which adds to the charm of the city. It is the most developed city in Peru after Lima. The historic center of Arequipa was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its abundance of Spanish colonial baroque churches and mansions, and the Monastery of Santa Catalina, a city within a city with cobblestone streets, squares and courtyards. Arequipa's cuisine has remained strongly influenced by Spanish colonial cuisine in Lima and has remained relatively free of the subsequent influence of immigrants who arrived in Lima, such as Chinese and Japanese. Colca Canyon is located 100 kilometers northwest of Arequipa and is twice the depth of the Grand Canyon in the United States. Cotahuasi Canyon, which is located closer to the city, but considered less picturesque, is the deepest in the Western Hemisphere.
Tourist Destinations in the Department of Ayacucho
The Department of Ayacucho is located in the southern Andes and contains a number of tourist sites that attract many visitors. It was crucial at every stage of history and culture of Peru, therefore stresses in its architecture, tradition and art. The capital city of Ayacucho, has colonial churches on every block, containing artworks valuable. The department is home to several archaeological sites of the Wari culture. It is also internationally recognized for his artistic demonstrations and festivals. The cities and towns of Ayacucho specialize in creating and selling crafts, many of these are created in Huamanga stone that is native to the department. The archaeological site of Vilcashuamán is an important Inca site.
Tourist Destinations in the Department of Cajamarca
The Department of Cajamarca is a melting pot of colonial architecture, huge historical importance and beautiful scenery. Its capital of the same name, played an extremely important role in the history of South America, due to the fact that it was precisely in the Plaza de Armas of Cajamarca where it came the fall of the Inca Empire, after the Spaniards took prisoner the Inca Atahualpa in 1532, and later formed the Viceroyalty of Peru.
Cajamarca is a candidate for World Heritage Site because of its architectural beauty and world-historical significance. It is noteworthy that the city is a focal point for tourism in the region, with 250,000 tourists in 2010 in Cajamarca is among the top 5 cities in number of visits in Peru.
The highlights of the Department of Cajamarca tourist destinations are:
Los Baños del Inca, medicinal thermal waters which were built by the Incas
The Windows of Otuzco, Inca cemetery carved into volcanic rock,
Cumbemayo, complex pre-Inca hydraulic engineering is still in use to this day and is a unique example in global hydraulic engineering,
La Hacienda La Colpa
Kuntur Wasi temple dating back to 1100 B.C.,
The Museum, which has gold artifacts which are among the oldest prepared by the Andean man,
The ransom room, living the Inca Atahualpa ordered to be filled with gold and silver to secure his release from the hands of the conqueror Francisco Pizarro.
Tourist destinations in the Province of Callao
The Constitutional Province of Callao is really a town rather than a political entity. It is part of Metropolitan Lima and is the transportation hub of the country, is the Jorge Chavez International, the largest airport in the country is located. Callao is Peru's largest seaport founded in 1537.
During the Viceroyalty of Peru, all the wealth extracted from the South American continent had to go through this city. This richness is evident through the colonial mansions and carved balconies that characterize the historic center. Real Felipe Fortress is a major tourist attraction, was built in 1747 to protect the city from pirates like Sir Francis Drake; He played a key role in the War of Independence of Peru. Chucuito, a district of Callao, is known for its Gothic and neo-Renaissance houses and brightly colored houses. The district of La Punta, was home to the beach houses of the aristocracy of Lima and contains stately houses dating from the early nineteenth century. The district is characterized by a promenade to the sea, pebble beaches. The Camotal Islands, San Lorenzo, El Fronton, Cavinzas and Palomino in front of the coast are home to seabirds and sea lions.
Tourist Destinations in the Region of Cuzco
Cuzco is the most developed region for tourism in Peru, industry and infrastructure have developed very well. The city has thousands of hotel rooms ranging from hostels to five-star hotels. Gastronomy is representative of the entire Peru. International cuisine is also present in many restaurants in town. The city has a wide range of languages due to the presence of tourists, many common languages spoken in addition to Spanish, English, German and French. In addition to these languages, Quechua is spoken by many residents of the city along with the Spanish. Most travel agencies have offices in this city.
Major tourist attractions include the historic downtown Cuzco colonial architecture and the main square, Sacsayhuaman, Inca Roca Palace neighborhood of San Blas, and the archaeological sites of Kenko, and Tambomachay Pukapukara. Valley Sagradotiene a multitude of picturesque villages such as Pisac, Maras, Chinchero and also a variety of archaeological sites such as Ollantaytambo is located in the valley.
Arguably the most popular tourist attraction in Peru is located a few hours from Cusco by train:
Machu Picchu Attractions
Machu Picchu (Machu pikchu southern Quechua, "Old Mountain") is the contemporary name given to a llaqta ancient Incan Andean town built in the mid fifteenth century in the rocky promontory that links the Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu in the shed East of the Cordillera Central, south of Peru and 2490 m, altitude of the main square. Its original name would have been Picchu or Picho.
According to documents from the mid sixteenth century, Machu Picchu would have been one of the residences rest of Pachacutec, the ninth Inca Tahuantinsuyo between 1438 and 1470. However, some of its finest buildings and ceremonial evident from the main path to the llaqta demonstrate that it was used as a religious sanctuary. Both uses, the palace and sanctuary, would not have been incompatible. Some experts seem to have ruled, instead, an alleged military, so the popular descriptions of "strength" or "citadel" could have been overcome.
Machu Picchu is considered both a masterpiece of architecture and engineering. Its unique architectural features and landscaping, and the veil of mystery that has woven around much of the literature published on the site, have become one of the most popular tourist destinations on the planet.
Machu Picchu is on the List of World Heritage of UNESCO since 1983 as part of a cultural and ecological group known under the name Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. The July 7, 2007 Machu Picchu was declared one of the new Seven Wonders of the modern world in a ceremony in Lisbon, Portugal, which was attended by one hundred million voters worldwide.
These ruins are the most beautiful and important legacy of the Inca people; You can walk along the Inca Trail. Other routes such as the Salkantay Route, Inca Jungle Trek or Route Cocoa and Coffee have recently opened for access to Machu Picchu. The archaeological site itself is only accessible either from the Inca roads leading to it, or using the Hiram Bingham road up the slope of the hill Machu Picchu from the train station of Puente Ruinas, located at the bottom of the canyon.
To reach Machu Picchu by the main Inca trail to do a walk of about three days. This requires taking a train or railcar to the km 82 of the railway from Cuzco to Aguas Calientes, from where the journey pie.12 Some visitors take a local bus from Cusco to Ollantaytambo (via Urubamba) and then take a transportation to the mentioned km 82. once there cross the railway to cover the 32 km there to Aguas Calientes
Tourist Destinations in the Department of Huancavelica
The Department of Huancavelica has a rich history and maintains the evidence of this through a beautiful colonial architecture and archaeological monuments. This department was inhabited by the Wari and Chanca before being conquered and incorporated into the Inca Empire. After this, with the Spanish conquest of Peru, Huancavelica, it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The Spaniards settled in this area due to mine silver and mercury found around. magnificent colonial mansions and churches were built.
Tourist Destinations in the Huanuco Region
Huanuco Region is divided into two distinct geographical regions, highlands and jungle. The capital city, also known as Huanuco is located in the Andean highlands. It was founded in 1539 by the Spanish and has since been a place of typical colonial architecture of the Peruvian Andes. On the opposite side of the department, in the jungle, is Tingo Maria, the second largest city in the region. It is the home of Tingo Maria National Park, which contains a wide variety of flora like orchids, cat's claw and dragon's blood, and animals such as ocelots, jaguars, reptiles, tapirs, guácharos, the cock of the rock, and howler monkey. A tourist destination in this area is home to the owl, the Cave of night birds and home to Turkey's Cave abundant vegetation.
Tourist Destinations in the Ica Region
Ica Region was the site of several ancient civilizations that literally left their mark. One of the most popular attractions in this area are the Nazca Lines, an enigma that modern archaeologists have not been able to find out. These lines stretch for kilometers on images of the desert and the shape of animals and figures visible only from the air.
The Paracas National Reserve is another point in this circuit that attracts many ecological and cultural tourists alike as it is a haven for sea lions, otters, penguins, dolphins, over 200 species of birds flamingos, waders and birds guano . Moreover, in the book, there are magnificent beaches such as La Mina, the Cathedral and Mendieta beaches and beautiful rock formations. In the rest of the apartment there are a variety of vineyards that produce pisco and wine. Wine tasting in this area is among the best of Peru. Another popular destination is the oasis of Huacachina, on behalf of her beauty and that was the cradle of Afro-Peruvian music.
Tourist Destinations in the Region of La Libertad
Located in the region of La Libertad, is the city of Trujillo, known in Peru as the city of eternal spring, in September of each year it takes place in the city on spring festival which is visited by tourists from around the world, the festival's main attraction is a parade of queens called corso spring and a final party.
In the metropolitan area are the capitals of the ancient Chimu and Mochica kingdoms such as Chan Chan and the Temples of the Sun and Moon, respectively. Tourists are attracted by its pre-Inca monuments such as the Temple of the Sun and the Moon, The Witch, and the most notable of the ancient Chimu culture is the city of Chan Chan. Northwest of Trujillo is Huanchaco, famous for its horses of reeds - reed boats used by local fishermen since ancient times for its waves for surfing; attraction is also the trujillana cuisine with dishes like ceviche, cabrito to the northern, etc. The Trujillana colonial architecture is one of the best in Peru. The historic center contains superb examples of colonial architecture including several churches, the main cathedral, colonial houses over 100 years old, in the city center is the main square or Plaza de Armas in the historic and representative Freedom Monument Trujillo. In January of each year takes place in the city of Fishermen's Festival, a festival of one of the most representative dances in Peru, this dance is called Fishermen's, this festival includes contest Peruvian Paso Horse. Also in La Libertad region are the beaches of Chicama and Pacasmayo, which are visited by surfers from around the world.
In Andean areas of the region are the archaeological sites and Wiracochapampa Marcahuamachuco and close the Lake Sausacocha in Huamachuco. It was recently opened in Santiago de Chuco, after its restoration, a museum in the house where he was born and lived the poet Cesar Vallejo, where tourists can see some intimate atmosphere in which he lived and who are named in his poetry. Some attractions in the region La Libertad:
Major Tourist Attraction in the region of La Libertad
Caballito de Totora
El Brujo Complex
Huaca del Sol
Huaca del Dragon (or Rainbow)
Festivals in the Region of La Libertad
Fishermen's Festival in January.
International Spring Festival in the final week of September.
Week Anniversary of Trujillo, in the first week of March.
Mr. festivities Huaman, in the last week of June.
festivities of the Virgen de la Puerta, in the second week of dicienmbre in the city of Otuzco.
Festival of San Jose in the resort of Las Delicias.
Tourist Destinations in the Department of Lambayeque
The Department of Lambayeque is one of the most tourist of Peru. It was home to the ancient civilization of Moche has created some of the most ingenious monuments and works of art best known in ancient Peru. In 1987, the Royal Tombs of the Lord of Sipan Moche Ruler were discovered artifacts found were transferred to the Royal Tombs of Sipan Museum in the city of Lambayeque.
They are also the Bruning Museum and the Museum of Sicán in Ferreñafe. These museums show the work of art produced by the ancient Moche collected from archaeological sites such as the pyramids of Túcume material in its territory more than 20 adobe pyramids with 40 meters high.
The Department of Lambayeque also Chaparrí Ecological Reserve, which has abundant biodiversity. The most popular dish in this area is rice with duck. Chiclayo, capital of the department, is the second largest in northern Peru and has a vibrant nightlife.
Map of Peru